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Brief History of Afghanistan : Afghanistan officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, may be a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast. Occupying 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi), its a mountainous country with plains within the north and southwest. Kabul is that the capital and largest city. The population is around 32 million, composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks.

Humans lived in whats now Afghanistan a minimum of 50,000 years ago. Settled life emerged within the region 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus civilization (Shortugai site), the Oxus civilization (Dashlyji site), and therefore the Helmand civilization (Mundigak site) of the 3rd millennium BCE. Indo-Aryans migrated through Bactria-Margiana area to Gandhara, followed by the increase of the Iron Age Yaz I culture (ca. 1500–1100 BCE), which has been closely related to the culture depicted within the Avesta, the traditional religious texts of Zoroastrianism. The region, then referred to as "Ariana", fell to Achaemenid Persians within the 6th century BCE, who conquered the areas to their east as far because the Indus .

Alexander the good invaded the region within the 4th century BCE, who married Roxana in Bactria before his Kabul Valley campaign, where he faced resistance from Aspasioi and Assakan tribes. The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom became the eastern end of the Hellenistic world. Following the conquest by Mauryan Indians, Buddhism and Hinduism flourished within the region for hundreds of years .

The Kushan emperor Kanishka, who ruled from his twin capitals of Kapiśi and Puruṣapura, played a crucial role within the spread of Mahayana to China and Central Asia. Various other Buddhist dynasties originated from this region also , including the Kidarites, Hephthalites, Alkhons, Nezaks, Zunbils and Turk Shahis. Muslims brought Islam to Sassanian-held Herat and Zaranj within the mid-7th century, while fuller Islamization was achieved between the 9th and 12th centuries under the Saffarid, Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Ghurid dynasties. Parts of the region were later ruled by the Khwarazmian, Khalji, Timurid, Lodi, Sur, Mughal, and Safavid empires.

The political history of the fashionable state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak dynasty, whose founder Mirwais Hotak declared southern Afghanistan independent in 1709. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Durrani Empire with its capital at Kandahar. In 1776, the Durrani capital was moved to Kabul while Peshawar became the winter capital; the latter was lost to Sikhs in 1823. within the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer country within the "Great Game" between British India and therefore the Russian Empire.

In the First Anglo-Afghan War, British Malay Archipelago Company seized control of Afghanistan briefly, but following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was freed from foreign influence, eventually becoming a monarchy under Amanullah Khan, until almost 50 years later when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup, Afghanistan first became a socialist state, evoking the Soviet–Afghan War within the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996, most of the country was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban, who ruled as a totalitarian regime for over five years; they were faraway from power after the US invasion in 2001 but still control a big portion of the country. The continued war between the govt and therefore the Taliban has contributed to the perpetuation of Afghanistans problematic human rights record including complications of womens rights, with numerous abuses committed by each side like the killing of civilians. Afghanistan may be a unitary presidential Islamic republic. The country has high levels of terrorism, poverty, child malnutrition, and corruption. its a member of the United Nations , the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and therefore the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistans economy is that the worlds 96th largest, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 169th out of 186 countries as of 2018.

Geography

At over 652,230 km2 (251,830 sq mi), Afghanistan is that the worlds 41st largest country, slightly bigger than France and smaller than Myanmar, and about the dimensions of Texas within the us theres no coastline, as Afghanistan is landlocked. It shares borders with Pakistan within the south and east (including Indian-claimed Gilgit-Baltistan); Iran within the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan within the north; and China within the Far East . The geography in Afghanistan is varied, but is usually mountainous and rugged, with some unusual mountain ridges amid plateaus and river basins. its dominated by the Hindu Kush range, the western extension of the Himalayas that stretches to eastern Tibet via the Pamir Mountains and Karakoram Mountains in Afghanistans far north-east. Most of the very best points are within the east consisting of fertile mountain valleys.

The Hindu Kush ends at the west-central highlands, creating plains within the north and southwest, namely the Turkestan Plains and therefore the Sistan Basin; these two regions contains rolling grasslands and semi-deserts, and hot windy deserts, respectively. Forests exist within the corridor between Nuristan and Paktika provinces, and tundra within the north-east. The countrys highest point is Noshaq, at 7,492 m (24,580 ft) above water level .The lowest point lies in Jowzjan Province along the Amu River bank, at 258 m (846 ft) above water level .

Climate

Afghanistan features a continental climate with harsh winters within the central highlands, the glaciated northeast (around Nuristan), and therefore the Wakhan Corridor, where the typical temperature in January is below −15 °C (5 °F) and may reach −26 °C (−15 °F), and hot summers within the low-lying areas of the Sistan Basin of the southwest, the Jalalabad basin within the east, and therefore the Turkestan plains along the Amu River within the north, where temperatures average over 35 °C (95 °F) in Julyand can re-evaluate 43 °C (109 °F).The country is usually arid within the summers, with most rainfall falling between December and April. The lower areas of northern and western Afghanistan are the driest, with precipitation more common within the east. Although proximate to India, Afghanistan is usually outside the monsoon zone, aside from Nuristan Province which occasionally receives summer monsoon rain.

Politics and Governance

Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the chief , legislative, and judicial. the state is led by President Ashraf Ghani with Amrullah Saleh and Sarwar Danish as vice presidents. The National Assembly is that the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and therefore the House of Elders. The Supreme Court is led by judge Said Yusuf Halem, the previous Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs.

According to Transparency International, Afghanistan remains within the top most corrupt countries list. A January 2010 report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumed an amount adequate to 23% of the GDP of the state .

On 17 May 2020, President Ashraf Ghani reached a power-sharing affect his rival from presidential elections, Abdullah Abdullah, choosing who would manage the respected key ministries. The agreement ended months-long political deadlock within the country. it had been agreed that while Ghani will lead Afghanistan because the president, Abdullah will oversee the social process with the Taliban.

Economy

Afghanistans nominal GDP was $21.7 billion in 2018, or $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity (PPP). Its GDP per capita is $2,024 (PPP).Despite having $1 trillion or more in mineral deposits, it remains one among the worlds least developed countries. Afghanistans rough physiography and its landlocked status has been cited as reasons why the country has always been among the smallest amount developed within the era – an element where progress is additionally slowed by contemporary conflict and political instability. The country imports over $7 billion worth of products but exports only $784 million, mainly fruits and nuts. It has $2.8 billion in external debt. The service sector contributed the foremost to the GDP (55.9%) followed by agriculture (23%) and industry (21.1%).

Afghan women at a textile factory in Kabul While the nations accounting deficit is essentially financed with donor money, only alittle portion is provided on to the govt budget. the remainder is provided to non-budgetary expenditure and donor-designated projects through the United Nations system and non-governmental organizations.

Da Afghanistan Bank is the financial institution of the state and therefore the "Afghani" (AFN) is that the national currency, with an rate of exchange of about 75 Afghanis to 1 US dollar. variety of local and foreign banks operate within the country, including the Afghanistan International Bank, New Kabul Bank, Azizi Bank, Pashtany Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, and therefore the First Micro Finance Bank.