Alabama, constituent state of the us of America, admitted to the union in 1819 because the 22nd state. Alabama forms a roughly rectangular shape on the map, elongated during a north-south direction. its bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, and Mississippi to the west. The Florida panhandle blocks Alabama’s access to the Gulf of Mexico except in Alabama’s southwestern corner, where Mobile Bay is found . Montgomery is that the capital .The state offers much topographical diversity. The rich agricultural valley of the Tennessee occupies the acute northern a part of the state. In northeastern Alabama the broken terrain of the southwestern fringe of the Appalachians begins and continues during a southwesterly progression across the northern half the state. Below that the band of prairie lowland referred to as the Black Belt has rich soils that when cradled a rural cotton-producing way of life central to the state’s development. Farther south stretch piney woods then coastal plains until one reaches the moss-draped live oaks of Mobile and therefore the white beaches of the gulf.
The landscape of Alabama has been the scene of the many of the main crises within the settlement of the continent and within the development of the country. it had been a battleground for European powers vying for the lands of the New World, for the fights between the ecu settlers and therefore the indigenous communities, for the struggles between North and South during the American war , for the civil rights movement, and for other forces of economic and social change that have extensively altered many aspects of the Deep South within the years since the mid-20th century. Although Alabama continues to reside within the lower segment nationally in many significant social and economic rankings, there has been improvement in some areas, particularly in ethnic relations, including the mixing of faculties and therefore the election of African Americans to political offices. Nevertheless, Alabamians and outsiders alike tend to agree that the state retains a particular way of life, rooted within the traditions of the Old South . Area 52,420 square miles (135,767 square km). Population (2010) 4,779,736; (2019 est.) 4,903,185.
Land - Although the typical elevation of Alabama is about 500 feet (150 metres) above water level , this represents a gradation from the part of two ,407 feet (734 metres), atop Cheaha Mountain within the northeast, down across the Black Belt to the flat, low southern Gulf Coast counties. Within this gradation, several relief regions could also be distinguished. The southern extremities of the Appalachians cover nearly half the state. within the far north the Cumberland Mountains region, segmented by upper branches of the Cumberland, Kentucky, and Tennessee systems, thrusts southward from Tennessee. Elevations rise to 1,800 feet (550 metres) within the more rugged eastern portions. the good Appalachian Valley forms another marked division to the east. alittle triangular portion of the Piedmont Plateau juts across from Georgia at an elevation averaging 1,000 feet (300 metres).
Climate of Alabama - The Alabama climate is temperate, with a mean annual temperature of about 64 °F (18 °C), mellowed by altitude to some 60 °F (16 °C) within the northern counties and reaching 67 °F (19 °C) within the southern counties, although summer heat is usually alleviated somewhat by the winds blowing in from the Gulf of Mexico. Occasionally the temperature may rise to 100 °F (38 °C) within the summer, whereas frosts occur with more frequency; snow may sometimes fall within the northern counties.
The typical summer temperature is 79 °F (26 °C); the winter average is 48 °F (9 °C). Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with an annual average of 56 inches (1,420 mm) and a degree on the coast. Droughts are infrequent. These favourable conditions have given the state an extended season , starting from about 200 days within the north to some 300 days within the south. Alabama is subject to severe weather, especially during the hotter months. In late summer and early fall, southern areas are often hit by strong tropical storms, including hurricanes as they sweep northward from the Gulf; Hurricanes Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) were especially devastating to coastal areas. The northern half the state lies within the southern range of the country thats most suffering from tornadoes. Occasionally, large-scale outbreaks of multiple tornadoes have turned particularly deadly and destructive within the region, as they did in April 1974 and in April 2011.
Plant and animal life - The warm climate of Alabama has nurtured an upscale plant cover, including quite 100 tree varieties. Most of the thick forests are within the north and northeast. Pine trees predominate, and live oaks also are found statewide, adding character to the streets of the older towns and cities. Sweet gum and black walnut also are common, while the colorful red cedar is most abundant within the Tennessee valley and therefore the Black Belt, with stately black cypress clustering around rivers and ponds. There are many sorts of shrubs and grasses, and bamboo, large canes, and mistletoe are widespread. Muscadine and scuppernong grapes and blackberries also flourish.
Beardlike Spanish moss grows within the coastal woodlands. Economy Of Alabama Among the 50 states, Alabama is comparatively poor, and median family income has remained well below the national average. Rural poverty skews the state average downward, however, concealing more-promising trends and therefore the stronger economic base that exists within the urban areas. Much of this has been supported manufacturing’s steady contribution to the state economy, but a crucial development has been the continued growth of the service sector.
Agriculture - The Alabamian rural economy challenges the normal view of a dependency on cotton. Although cotton has continued to be of local importance, it suffered an important blow with the onset of the Anthonomus grandis blight in 1915, and acreage has continued to say no . Mechanization and consolidation increased the typical farm size after the 1930s. The diversification of agricultural production then brought an excellent increase within the acreage dedicated to forestry, and cotton fields got over to pasture for dairy and beef . Poultry has become a serious farm product within the state.
The principal crops are cotton, peanuts (groundnuts), soybeans, and corn (maize). Farm income has continued to rise, and therefore the average value of a farm has multiplied repeatedly since the mid-20th century. Farm and farm-related employment, however, have declined steadily over an equivalent period, as has agriculture’s share of the state’s economy.
Resources and power - Industrial development in Alabama is historically rooted within the iron and industry of Birmingham, the event of which was facilitated by accessible deposits of ore , coal, and limestone. Other minerals include the state’s well-known white marble, now distributed primarily in crushed form to be used in various applications, including paper pigment. Petroleum production in commercial quantities dates from the mid-1940s; there are variety of wells within the coastal regions. gas production is additionally significant in coastal areas.
The bulk of Alabama’s electrical power is generated by thermal plants, the good majority of which are coal-fired. Nuclear-generating stations contribute about one-fourth of the entire . Hydroelectricity from multiple facilities, including several operated by the TVA, supplies alittle but still significant fraction of the state’s overall power.
Manufacturing - World War II defense industries gave an impetus to the economic economy of the state within the mid-20th century. Although production of iron and steel has continued to possess some importance in Alabama’s economy, the manufacture of food products, textiles and apparel, wood products and paper, chemicals, and plastics has reduced the reliance on primary metals. The George C.
Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, notable for producing the Saturn booster rockets that propelled the Apollo and Skylab spacecraft of the 1960s and early ’70s, has been a serious contributor to the state’s economy. That and other high-value industries have contributed to Huntsville’s overall prosperity and have helped establish the town as a crucial nexus of technology.
Government And Society
Constitutional framework - Alabama is governed by a bicameral legislature and a governor and cabinet. The legislature consists of the Senate, with 35 members, and therefore the House of Representatives, with 105 members, who meet annually in regular sessions; members of both chambers are elected for four-year terms. The constitution may be a complex document dating from 1901, with many subsequent amendments. The chief administrative officers of the state, starting from the governor to the state Board of Education, also are all elected for four-year terms. The state Supreme Court of nine elected members is that the highest judicial body.
At the county level the chief elected officials in Alabama are the county commissioners, judges of probate, tax assessors and collectors, and boards of education. within the municipalities theres no uniform system of government; the mayor-council form is commonest , but some cities have a commission, and a few employ a mayor .
Alabama’s penal system has been stretched well beyond capacity. Although the speed of imprisonment for violent crimes peaked within the early 1990s before beginning a gentle decline, more citizens are incarcerated for drug-related offenses. Alabama typically ranks among the very best states for the highest murder rate per capita. The state built new prisons within the 1980s and ’90s and for a time reinstituted a system of convicts performing on state roads; the program was abandoned near the top of the 20th century.
The Democratic Party of Alabama has long held political control of the government , although there has been an increased Republican showing. In 1986 the state elected its first Republican governor since Reconstruction, and beginning within the 1990s, Republicans, usually from suburban areas, won places within the state legislature, on judicial benches, and in government bodies. albeit the Democrats have continued to regulate the state legislature, most white Democratic representatives are fairly conservative in ideology . At the national level, Republicans generally comprise the bulk of the Alabama delegation, and Republican presidential candidates have won the state in most elections since 1964. African Americans holding position had become well-established by the 1970s, with Birmingham electing its first African American mayor in 1979. Several political organizations have also helped increase African American participation within the political process.
Cultural Life - Alabama is rich in rural cultural traditions. Storytelling especially has attracted the eye of folklore specialists, and quilt making is additionally a highly developed art. Sacred music, within the sort of gospel ensembles and shape-note, or “fa-so-la,” singing, remains an important a part of Alabama’s cultural life. The experiences of rural life have contributed important elements to varied genres of yank popular music genre , including ragtime, jazz, and country and western . W.C. Handy, noted for blending blues and ragtime into a replacement popular style within the early 20th century, and Williams , a mid-20th-century pioneer of country and western , are among Alabama’s most musically influential progeny. During the 1960s and ’70s, numerous hit records were made in studios within the Muscle Shoals region .