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Brief History of Argentina 

Argentina officially Argentina Republic is a country located mostly within the southern half South America. Sharing the majority of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is additionally bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and therefore the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and therefore the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of two ,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is that the eighth-largest country within the world, the fourth largest within the Americas, the second largest in South America after Brazil, and therefore the largest Spanish-speaking nation by area. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires , which is that the federal capital of the state (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. The provinces and therefore the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over a part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and therefore the South Hawaiian Islands .

The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose because the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de Rio de la Plata , a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended war that lasted until 1861, culminating within the countrys reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, and therefore the Argentine culture has significant connections to the Italian culture.

The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation within the world by the first 20th century. consistent with the Maddison Historical Statistics Project, Argentina had the worlds highest real GDP per capita in 1895 and 1896, and was consistently within the top ten before a minimum of 1920. Currently, its ranked 61st within the world. Following the good Depression within the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back to underdevelopment, although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow and vice chairman , Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 by a military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists within the offense , a period of state terrorism and civil unrest that lasted over a decade until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as president in 1983.

Argentina may be a developing country and ranks 46th on the Human Development Index, the second highest in Latin America after Chile. its a regional power in Latin America and retains its historic status as a middle power in world affairs . Argentina maintains the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America , and may be a member of G-15 and G20. its also a founding member of the United Nations International Bank for Reconstruction and Development , World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and therefore the Organization of Ibero-American States.

Geography

With a mainland area of two ,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi), Argentina is found in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west; Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and therefore the refore the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Drake Passage to the south; for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de Rio de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long.

Argentinas highest point is Aconcagua within the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level),also the very best point within the Southern and Western Hemispheres. rock bottom point is Laguna del Carbón within the San Julián Great Depression Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below water level , also rock bottom point within the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and therefore the seventh lowest point on Earth)

The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and therefore the westernmost is within Los Glaciares park in Santa Cruz province.The maximum north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the utmost east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi).

Some of the main rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to make the Río de Rio de la Plata , Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado. These rivers are discharged into Argentina Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic over Argentina Shelf, a strangely wide continental platform. Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the nice and cozy Brazil Current and therefore the cold Falklands Current.

Climate

In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, home in altitude, and relief features. Although the foremost populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina has an exceptional amount of climate diversity, starting from subtropical within the north to polar within the far south. Consequently, theres a good sort of biomes within the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid regions, temperate plains within the Pampas, and cold subantarctic within the south. the typical annual precipitation ranges from 150 millimetres (6 in) within the driest parts of Patagonia to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) within the westernmost parts of Patagonia and therefore the northeastern parts of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C (41 °F) within the far south to 25 °C (77 °F) within the north.

Politics and Government

Argentina may be a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy. the govt is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the countrys supreme legal instrument . The seat of state is that the city of Buenos Aires , as designated by Congress. Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory.

The federal consists of three branches:The National Congress composed of the Senate and therefore the Chamber of Deputies.The branch consists of the bicameral Congress, made from the Senate and therefore the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties and has the facility of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the govt . The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. As of 2014 ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the foremost populous one, has 70. The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.

In the Executive Office of the President , the President is that the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the cupboard and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The President is elected directly by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and should be elected to office no quite twice during a row.

The branch includes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.The Judicial is independent of the chief and therefore the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for all times . The lower courts judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the chief and therefore the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.

Economy

Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin Americas third-largest,and the second largest in South America. its a "very high" rating on the Human Development Indexand a comparatively high GDP per capita, with a substantial internal market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector.

Access to biocapacity in Argentina is far above world average. In 2016, Argentina had 6.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, far more than the planet average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In 2016 Argentina used 3.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption. this suggests they use half the maximum amount biocapacity as Argentina contains. As a result, Argentina is running a biocapacity reserve.

The Catalinas Norte is a crucial business complex composed of 19 commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies.A middle emerging economy and one among the worlds top developing nations, Argentina may be a member of the G-20 major economies. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic process alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early within the 20th century Argentina achieved development,and became the worlds seventh richest country. Although managing to stay an area among the highest fifteen economies until mid-century, it suffered an extended and steady decline, but its still a high income country.

High inflation—a weakness of Argentina economy for decades—has become a trouble once more ,with an annual rate of 24.8% in 2017. to discourage it and support the peso, the govt imposed foreign currency control.[206] Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is assessed as "medium", although its still considerably unequal.

Argentina ranks 85th out of 180 countries within the Transparency Internationals 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index, an improvement of twenty-two positions over its 2014 rankings.[208] Argentina settled its long-standing debt default crisis in 2016 with the so-called vulture funds after the election of Mauricio Macri, allowing Argentina to enter capital markets for the primary time during a decade.

The government of Argentina defaulted on 22 May 2020 by failing to pay a $500 million maturity to its creditors. Negotiations for the restructuring of $66 billion of its debt continue.