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Brief History of Brazil : Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is that the largest country in both South America and Latin America . At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is that the worlds fifth-largest country by area and therefore the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is Sao Paulo .

The federation consists of the union of the 26 states and therefore the administrative district the foremost important country to possess Portuguese as a politician language and therefore the just one within the Americas; its also one among the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, thanks to over a century of mass immigration from round the world; also because the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country. Bounded by the Atlantic on the east, Brazil features a coastline of seven ,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continents acreage .Its Amazon basin includes a huge tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a spread of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one among 17 megadiverse countries, and is that the subject of serious global interest, environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like global climate change and biodiversity loss. Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations before the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the world for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the uk of Portugal, Brazil and therefore the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the primary constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup . An authoritarian junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. thanks to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth within the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Brazil is assessed as an upper-middle income economy by the planet Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the most important share of worldwide wealth in Latin America its considered a complicated emerging economy, having the twelfth largest GDP within the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures. its one among the worlds major breadbaskets, being the most important producer of coffee for the last 150 years. Brazil may be a regional power and sometimes considered an excellent or a middle power in world affairs .On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a possible superpower by several analysts. Brazil may be a founding member of the United Nations , the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of yank States, Organization of Ibero-American States and therefore the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

Geography

Brazil occupies an outsized area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continents interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and France (French overseas region of French Guiana) to the north. It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses variety of oceanic archipelagos, like Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.[186] Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W. Brazil is that the fifth largest country within the world, and third largest within the Americas, with a complete area of 8,515,767.049 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi), including 55,455 km2 (21,411 sq mi) of water. It spans four time zones; from UTC−5 comprising the state of Acre and therefore the westernmost portion of Amazonas, to UTC−4 within the western states, to UTC−3 within the eastern states (the national time) and UTC−2 within the Atlantic islands

Climate

The climate of Brazil comprises a good range of weather across an outsized area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.[16] consistent with the Köppen system, Brazil hosts six major climatic subtypes: desert, equatorial, tropical, semiarid, oceanic and subtropical. the various climate produce environments starting from equatorial rainforests within the north and semiarid deserts within the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests within the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil. Many regions have starkly different microclimates. An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. theres no real season , but there are some variations within the period of the year when most rain falls.[191] Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F),[193] with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons. Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. This region is as extensive because the Amazon basin but features a very different climate because it lies farther south at a better altitude. within the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic region generally receives but 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain, most of which generally falls during a period of three to 5 months of the year and infrequently but this, creating long periods of drought. Brazils 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the worst in Brazils history,caused approximately half 1,000,000 deaths.A similarly devastating drought occurred in 1915. South of Bahia, near the coasts, and more southerly most of the state of Sao Paulo , the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year.The south enjoys subtropical conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64.4 °F); winter frosts and snowfall arent rare within the highest areas.

Government and politics

The form of state may be a democratic federative republic, with a presidential system.The president is both head of state and head of state of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the likelihood of re-election for a second successive term. the present president is Jair Bolsonaro. The previous president, Michel Temer, replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment. The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each political entity are the most source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is that the Federations bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and therefore the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Brazil may be a democracy, consistent with the Democracy Index 2010. The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the administrative district and therefore the municipalities. The Union, the states, the administrative district and therefore the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The federation is about on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of citizenry , the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of state (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution. the chief and legislative are organized independently altogether three spheres of state , while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state and administrative district spheres.

National Congress, seat of the branch .All members of the chief and legislative branches are directly elected.Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.For most of its democratic history, Brazil has had a multi-party system, representation . Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and people between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.

Economy

Brazil is that the largest economy in Latin America , the worlds ninth largest economy and therefore the eighth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP) consistent with 2018 estimates. Brazil features a economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid climb in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in 2014 amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests. Its Gross domestic product (PPP) per capita was $15,919 in 2017 putting Brazil within the 77th position consistent with IMF data. Active in agricultural, mining, manufacturing and repair sectors Brazil features a labor pool of over 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2% (ranking 64th worldwide). The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one among a gaggle of 4 emerging economies called the BRIC countries. Brazil has been the worlds largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. The country may be a major exporter of soy, iron ore, pulp (cellulose), maize, beef, chicken meat, soybean flour , sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, fruit juice , footwear, airplanes, cars, vehicle parts, gold, ethanol, semi-finished iron, among other products. Brazils diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a good range of services. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for five .1% of the GDP in 2007.Brazil is that the largest producer of sugarcane, soy, coffee, orange, guaraná, açaí and Brazil nut; is one among the highest 5 producers of maize, papaya, tobacco, pineapple, banana, cotton, beans, coconut, watermelon and lemon; is one among the highest 10 world producers of cocoa, cashew, avocado, tangerine, persimmon, mango, guava, rice, sorghum and tomato; and is one among the highest 15 world producers of grape, apple, melon, peanut, fig, peach, onion, vegetable oil and natural rubber. The country also produces large quantities of potato,carrot, strawberry, yerba mate, wheat, among others. a part of the assembly is exported, and another part goes to the domestic market. In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one among the most important countries within the world. In 2019, the country was the worlds largest exporter of chicken meat. it had been also the second largest producer of beef, the worlds third largest producer of milk, the worlds fourth largest producer of por and therefore the seventh largest producer of eggs within the world.