California, constituent state of the United States of America. It had been admitted because the 31st state of the Union on 9 September-1850,and was the foremost populous American state until the first 1960s. No version of the origin of the California has been fully accepted, but theres widespread support for the contention that its from an early 16th-century Spanish novel, Las Sergas de Esplandian ("The Adventures of Esplandion") Was taken, which described a paradox called an island filled with gold and precious stones called California. The influence of Spanish settlers of the 18th and 19th centuries is clear in Californias architecture and place-names.
The capital is Sacramento. California is bounded on the north by the state of Oregon, on the east by the states of Nevada and Arizona, on the south by the Mexican state of Lower California , and on the west by the Pacific . From the rainy northern coast to the rippling Colorado Desert within the south, and from the central and southern coasts of the Mediterranean to the volcanic plateau of the far northeast, California may be a land of unusual physical contrasts. Both the very best and lowest points within the 48 concurrent states are in California – Whitney and Death Valley , respectively. one among the main mountain ranges of East North America, is that the closing peak of the Sierra Nevada.
Californias heartland is that the Central Valley, which runs 450 miles (725 km) through the middle of the state, forming a trough between the Coast Range to the west and therefore the Sierra Nevada to the east. The valley is that the agricultural center of the state. its one opening delta through which the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers flow into San Francisco Bay. The valley is closed to the north-east by the Cascades and to the northwest by the Klamath Mountains. the world within the far north is rugged and heavily forested, which gets wet on the coastal shore and dredgers and barren within the northeast. The Central Valley to the south is closed by transverse ranges, specifically the Tehachapi Mountains, which are considered as a dividing wall between Southern and Central California.
Much of eastern California is desert. within the northeastern northeastern corner of the state may be a junk of barren plains and mountains, also as a volcanic plateau. The east-central region is that the Trans-Sierra Desert, which stretches along the sheer eastern expanse of the Sierra Nevada Range and includes the basin and a part of the vast interstate Great Basin of the Range Province. The Trans-Sierra Desert ranges from 2,000 to 7,400 feet (600 to 2,300 m) above water level . Its largest cities are within the Owens Valley, which was a fertile farmland, until its groundwater flow was diverted through a huge series of sewers inbuilt 1908–13 in l. a.
Californias climate is marked by two seasons - one wet and one dry. Leaving the coast, the resulting stagnation of air dryness and evaporation reduces the severity of summer heat. quite 170 inches (4,300 mm) of precipitation within the northwest is within the southeastern desert, but the coast experiences moderate temperatures and rainfall. Climate also changes rapidly with extremes. Death Valley, at rock bottom point 282 feet (86 m) above water level , is that the hottest and driest place in North America. In summer its temperature easily rises to 100 F (about 48 ° C), and therefore the average annual rainfall is merely 2 inches (50 °). Summer temperatures within the low-Colorado desert can reach around 130 ° F (54 ° C), and there are only 3 to 4 inches (75 to 100 mm) of annual rainfall.
within the high eastern deserts of California, summer temperatures are more moderate. Winter temperatures within the Sierra Nevada may compared to freezing. Average annual temperatures are within the mid-60s (around 18 ° C) in l. a. , with an annual average rainfall of about 14 inches (350 mm). Average temperature within the mid 50F (about 14 ° C) with an annual rainfall of about 50 inches (508 mm) in San Francisco . On the coast, temperatures rarely exceed 90 ° F (32 ° C) or decrease in cold, and humidity is low.
Californias economy is that the largest of any US state and surpasses only a couple of industrialized nations. Financiers in California are imaginative in seeking and employing capital, and lots of of the nations largest banks and corporations are based within the state. In 1965, California distinguished ny because the leading state within the export of manufactured goods. With the event of Silicon Valley within the late 1970s, California became a world leader within the manufacture of computers and electronics. By the top of the 20th century, the states economy was attracting highly educated workers round the world. additionally , California has maintained its dominance within the aerospace industry (although the industry declined within the 1990s), within the film and tv industry, and in agriculture and viticulture. Agricultural accounts at but one-tenth of the states income; Nevertheless, California produces quite half the countrys vegetables and fruits. Large-scale irrigated farming within the states fields and orchards provides many agricultural products of astonishing variety. Its major cash products are cattle, milk, cotton and grapes.
About half the agricultural produce comes from the Central Valley, which is irrigated through a maze of dams, canals and power and pumping plants. California has been affected by drought from time to time, which has had an impression on agricultural production, and has declined to some extent as more agricultural land has led to commercial and residential development. About a tenth of Californias employees are employed in agriculture. The farm laborer pool is formed from low-income laborers, including many migrants and Mexican citizens who cross the border during the harvest season.
Long abused within the late 1960s, under the leadership of Chavez , migrant laborers began an organically protracted strike that garnered nationwide support within the sort of a consumer boycott. Subsequently, Chavezs United Farm Workers Union lost most of its membership to the Teamsters Union , which mobilized the agricultural and industrial labor pool to the extent that California was now one among the nations most heavily unionized states.
Petroleum production increased rapidly after 1895 with frequent oil strikes within the l. a. – Long Beach area. California led all states in petroleum production from 1900 to 1936. Reserves have steadily decreased in rate, however, and oil and gas also are now imported. Nevertheless, petroleum is surpassing all other minerals within the value of production, and one-tenth of the nations oil supply is refined in California. Other mineral production includes gas , cement, sand and gravel, borate, soda and salt. Gold mining is now negligible, as is that the exploitation of other precious metals.
About a tenth of Californias electricity comes from renewable resources, including wind and solar energy . Most of the thousands of wind turbines within the state are on "wind farms" at Altamont Pass, east of San Francisco; San Gorgonio Pass near Palm Springs; And Techapi, south of Bakersfield. The Mojave has solar thermal power plants. The state has become a world leader within the development of renewable sorts of all kinds of energy.
California is governed under a constitution that was created in 1878–79, a period of rampant corruption. its been revised several times. Amendments established by the govt in 1911. Hiram Johnson included provisions for voter initiatives and referendums on legislation, recalling elected officials (removing a sitting governor in 2003), primary , womens suffrage, and a singular system that allowed candidates. To run within the preferences of political parties against opposing parties. In 1966, it became one among the longest governmental entities within the world before a series of removals began. Since 1962, amendments to the constitution are often made by voters without calling a convention, and most general ballots now include dozens of proposals on issues like tax rates, social action , bilingual education, and couple .
The statutes under which primary elections are held within the state also are subject to variety of ballot initiatives, including one in 2010, during which a system was created that involved the 2 top vote recipients within the primary, no matter whether General elections no matter party affiliation. State governments and native governments also are subject to such initiatives, particularly in planning and zoning decisions and tax issues.
Local government is operated through some 4,000 agencies, comprising 58 counties and a couple of hundred involved cities. Counties and cities may establish charters or accept common-law provisions and statutory laws. Counties that recognize common law provisions are according to state law regarding the amount and duties of elected officials. Chartered counties have limited authority to schedule elections or to make a decision the length and pay of their officers. Unlike counties, cities operate under changes to the mayor-council-manager system, and that they have broader revenue-generating authorities than counties. l. a. and San Francisco operate under mayors and elected councils, while San Diego and San Jose employ city managers, who assume a bigger share of administrative duty. Volunteer party organizations have often introduced roles fulfilled by the Democratic and Republican Party structures. Parties are forbidden to support any candidate before the first , but informal organizations do so and are often better funded and arranged than the party structure. to beat the inefficiency of this party, candidates address professional campaign managers to reinforce their public images.