Jammu and Kashmir may be a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the topic of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.
The region of Jammu and Kashmir is separated by the road of Control from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan within the west and north, respectively. It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh, which is additionally subject to the dispute as a neighborhood of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory.
Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which was gone by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. The act re-constituted the previous state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, with effect from 31 October 2019.