Japan Brief History (Japanese: 日本, Nippon [ɲippoꜜɴ] ) is an island country in East Asia, located within the northwest Pacific . its bordered on the west by the ocean of Japan, and extends from the ocean of Okhotsk within the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan within the south. a part of the Ring of fireside , Japan spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is Japans capital and largest city; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.
Japan is that the eleventh-most populous country within the world, also together of the foremost densely populated and urbanized. About three-fourths of the countrys terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 125.57 million on narrow coastal plains. Japan is split into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. The Greater Tokyo Area is that the most populous metropolitan area within the world, with quite 37.4 million residents.Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period (30,000 BC), though the primary mentions of the archipelago appear in Chinese chronicles from the first century AD. Between the 4th and 9th centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became unified under an emperor and his imperial court based in Heian-kyō. Beginning within the 12th century, political power was held by a series of military dictators (shōgun) and feudal lords (daimyō), and enforced by a category of warrior nobility (samurai). After a century-long period of war , the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate, which enacted an isolationist policy .
In 1854, a us fleet forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the top of the shogunate and therefore the restoration of imperial power in 1868. within the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. In 1937, Japan invaded China; in 1941, it entered war II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat within the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a replacement constitution.
Since 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet.Japan may be a world power and a member of various international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), the OECD, and therefore the Group of Seven. Although its renounced its right to declare war, the country maintains Self-Defense Forces that are ranked because the worlds fourth-most powerful military. After war II, Japan experienced high economic process , becoming the second-largest economy within the world by 1990 before being surpassed by China in 2010. Despite stagnant growth since the Lost Decade, the countrys economy remains the third-largest by nominal GDP and therefore the fourth-largest by PPP. a pacesetter within the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology.
Ranked the second-highest country on the Human Development Index in Asia after Singapore, Japan has the worlds second-highest anticipation , though its experiencing a decline in population. The culture of Japan is well-known round the world, including its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, which encompasses prominent animation and computer game industries.
Japan may be a unitary state and constitutional monarchy during which the facility of the Emperor is restricted to a ceremonial role. Executive power is instead wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested within the Japanese people. Naruhito is that the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his father Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019.
Japans legislative organ is that the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. theres universal suffrage for adults over 18 years aged ,] with a vote for all elected offices. The prime minister because the head of state has the facility to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet.Elected within the 2020 Japanese prime minister election, Yoshihide Suga is Japans prime minister.Historically influenced by Chinese law, the japanese system developed independently during the Edo period through texts like Kujikata Osadamegaki. Since the late 19th century, the judiciary has been largely supported the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code supported the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is that the oldest unamended constitution within the world. law originates within the legislature, and therefore the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation gone by the Diet without giving him the facility to oppose legislation. the most body of Japanese law is named the Six Codes. Japans court system is split into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.
The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido, features a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and really consider cool summers. Precipitation isnt heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks within the winter.In the Sea of Japan region on Honshus West Coast , northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall during winter. within the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures due to the foehn. The Central Highland features a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round.
The Pacific Coast features a damp subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers due to the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is extremely heavy, especially during the season . the most season begins in early May in Okinawa, and therefore the rain front gradually moves north. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rainfall and increasing temperatures have caused problems within the agricultural industry et al. .The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C (106.0 °F), was recorded on July 23, 2018, and repeated on August 17, 2020.
Japan is that the third largest economy within the world, after the us and China, in terms of nominal GDP, and therefore the fourth largest economy within the world, after the us , China and India, in terms of buying power parity as of 2019. As of 2019, Japans debt was estimated at around 230 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the most important of any rated nation, and Japans labor pool consisted of 67 million workers.Japan features a low percentage of around 2.4 percent.Around 16 percent of the population were below the poverty level in 2017.Japans exports amounted to 18.5% of GDP in 2018. As of 2019, Japans main export markets were the us (19.8 percent) and China (19.1 percent). Its main exports are automobiles , iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts. Japans main import markets as of 2019 were China (23.5 percent), the us (11 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent). Japans main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and raw materials for its industries.Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries within the 2019 simple doing index . the japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifelong employment and seniority-based career advancement are common within the Japanese work environment. Japan features a large cooperative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives within the world, including the most important consumer cooperative and therefore the largest agricultural cooperative within the world as of 2018.Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. its ranked sixth within the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016