Kerala may be a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. it had been formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile states of Travancore-Cochin and Madras cover 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is that the twenty-first largest Indian state by area. its bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and therefore the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is that the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. its divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is that the most generally speech and is additionally the official language of the state.
The Chera Dynasty was the primary prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom within the Deep South and therefore the Ezhimala kingdom within the north formed the opposite kingdoms within the early years of the Christian era (CE). The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The regions prominence in trade was noted within the works of Pliny also because the Periplus around 100 CE. within the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement within the early 20th century, there have been two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and therefore the Kingdom of Cochin. They united to make the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949.
The Malabar region, within the northern a part of Kerala, had been a neighborhood of the Madras province of British India, which later became a neighborhood of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Lakshadweep Islands, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and therefore the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a neighborhood of Madras State.
The economy of Kerala is that the 10th-largest in India with ₹7.82 trillion (US$110 billion) in gross state domestic product (GSDP) and a per capita GSDP of ₹204,000 (US$2,900). Kerala has rock bottom positive increase rate in India, 3.44%; the very best Human Development Index (HDI), 0.784 in 2018 (0.712 in 2015); the very best literacy rate, 96.2% within the 2018 literacy survey conducted by the National Statistical Office, India; the very best anticipation , 77 years; and therefore the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. Kerala is that the second-least impoverished state in India consistent with the Annual Report of Federal Reserve Bank of India published in 2013.
The state topped within the country to realize the Sustainable Development Goals consistent with the annual report of NITI Aayog published in 2019. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from an outsized Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by quite half the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture may be a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.
The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the entire national output. within the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The states coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people within the state are hooked in to the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the very best media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one among the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.