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West Bengal
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About

West Bengal may be a state in eastern India, between the Himalayas and therefore the Bay of Bengal. Its capital, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), retains architectural and cultural remnants of its past as an Malay Archipelago Company country store and capital of British Raj. The citys colonial landmarks include the govt buildings around B.B.D. Bagh Square, and therefore the iconic Victoria Memorial, dedicated to Britains queen. The region was a hotbed of the Indian independence movement and has remained one among Indias great artistic and intellectual centres.

Following widespread religious conflict, the Bengal legislature and therefore the Bengal legislature voted on the Partition of Bengal in 1947 along religious lines into two independent dominions: West Bengal , a Hindu-majority Indian state, and East Bengal, a Muslim-majority province of Pakistan which later became the independent Bangladesh. Post independence, West Bengals economy is predicated on agricultural production and little and medium-sized enterprises.For many decades the state underwent political violence and economic stagnation. Today, the economy of West Bengal is that the sixth-largest state economy in India with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹12.54 lakh crore (US$180 billion), and has the countrys 23rd-highest GSDP per capita of ₹115,748 (US$1,600). West Bengal also has the 28th-highest ranking among Indian states in human development index, with the index value being but that of India. The government debt of ₹4.0 lakh crore (US$56 billion), or 32.6% of GSDP, is fifth highest India, but has dropped from 40.65% since 2010–11. theres moderate unemployment. West Bengal has two World Heritage sites and ranks seventh-most visited tourist destination in India.

Geography

West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas within the north to the Bay of Bengal within the south. The state features a total area of 88,752 square kilometres (34,267 sq mi). The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region within the northern extreme of the state may be a a part of the eastern Himalayas range during this region is Sandakfu, which, at 3,636 m (11,929 ft), is that the highest peak within the state.The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal plains, which successively transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta within the east and therefore the western plateau and high lands. alittle coastal region is within the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangrove forests form a geographical landmark at the Ganges delta. The main river in West Bengal is that the Ganges, which divides into two branches. One branch enters Bangladesh because the Padma, or Pôdda, while the opposite flows through West Bengal because the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River. The Farakka barrage over the Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal. Its water flow management has been a source of lingering dispute between India and Bangladesh.

The Teesta, Torsa, Jaldhaka and Mahananda rivers are within the northern hilly region. The western plateau region has rivers just like the Damodar, Ajay and Kangsabati. The Ganges delta and therefore the Sundarbans area have numerous rivers and creeks. Pollution of the Ganges from indiscriminate waste dumped into the river may be a major problem.Damodar, another tributary of the Ganges and once referred to as the "Sorrow of Bengal" (due to its frequent floods), has several dams under the Damodar Valley Project. a minimum of nine districts within the state suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater, and as of 2017 an estimated 1.04 crore people were afflicted by arsenic poisoning.

West Bengals climate varies from tropical savanna within the southern portions to humid subtropical within the north. the most seasons are summer, the season a brief autumn and winter. While the summer within the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like northern India. the very best daytime temperatures range from 38 °C (100 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F).At night, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. In early summer, brief squalls and thunderstorms referred to as Kalbaisakhi, or Norwesters, often occur.

West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian Ocean monsoon that moves during a southeast to northwest direction. Monsoons bring rain to the entire state from June to September. Heavy rainfall of above 250 centimetres (98 in) is observed within the Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Cooch Behar district. During the arrival of the monsoons, low within the Bay of Bengal region often results in the formation of storms within the coastal areas. Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of 15 °C (59 °F).A cold and dry northern wind blows within the winter, substantially lowering the humidity level. The Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall.

Government and politics Body

West Bengal is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are two branches of state . The legislature, the West Bengal legislature , consists of elected members and special office bearers like the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker within the Speakers absence. The judiciary consists of the Calcutta supreme court and a system of lower courts. Executive authority is vested within the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister although the titular head of state is that the Governor. The Governor is that the Head of State appointed by the President of India.

The leader of the party or coalition with a majority within the legislature is appointed because the Chief Minister by the Governor. The Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the legislature . The Assembly is unicameral with 295 members, or MLAs,including one nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. Terms of office run five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved before the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities referred to as panchayats, that local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes 42 seats to the Lok Sabha and 16 seats to the Rajya Sabha of the Indian Parliament.Politics in Bengal is dominated by the All India Trinamool Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Congress, and therefore the Left Front alliance led by the Communist Party of India

Economy

West Bengal has the sixth-highest GSDP in India. GSDP at current prices (base 2004–2005) has increased from Rs 2,086.56 billion in 2004–05 to Rs 8,00,868 crores in 2014–2015, reaching Rs 10,21,000 crores in 2017–18.GSDP percent growth at current prices varied from a coffee of 10.3% in 2010–2011 to a high of 17.11% in 2013–2014. the expansion rate was 13.35% in 2014–2015.[114] The states per capita income has lagged the all India average for over 20 years . As of 2014–2015, per capita NSDP at current prices was Rs 78,903.[114] Per-capita NSDP rate of growth at current prices varied from 9.4% in 2010–2011 to a high of 16.15% in 2013–2014. the expansion rate was 12.62% in 2014–2015. In 2015–2016, percentage share of Gross Value Added (GVA) at factor cost by economic activity at constant price (base year 2011–2012) was Agriculture-Forestry and Fishery—4.84%, Industry 18.51% and Services 66.65%. its been observed that there has been a slow but steady decline within the percentage share of industry and agriculture over the years. Agriculture is that the leading economic sector in West Bengal .

Rice is that the states principal food crop. Rice, potato, jute, sugarcane and wheat are the states top five crops.Tea is produced commercially in northern districts; the region is documented for Darjeeling and other high-quality teas.State industries are localised within the Kolkata region, the mineral-rich western highlands, and therefore the Haldia Port region.

The Durgapur-Asansol colliery belt is home to variety of steel plants.Important manufacturing industries include: engineering products, electronics, electrical equipment, cables, steel, leather, textiles, jewellery, frigates, automobiles, railway coaches and wagons. The Durgapur centre has established variety of industries within the areas of tea, sugar, chemicals and fertilisers. Natural resources like tea and jute in nearby areas has made West Bengal a serious centre for the jute and tea industries.